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WaScubaDude
12-07-2008, 19:23
An Exercise For Reducing No-Mask Anxiety
By http://www.oseh.umich.edu/diving%20articles/nmask.pdf
Larry "Harris" Taylor, Ph.D.
Underwater Photography by Michael Spears
This material is copyrighted and the authors retain all rights. This article is made available as a service to the diving community by the authors and the Occupational Safety and Environmental Health Department of the University of Michigan. This article may be distributed for any non-commercial or Not-For-Profit use.
All rights reserved.
This article is based on material presented in the author’s basic class
The people who treat diver injuries tell me that incidents and injuries related to "escape to the surface" behavior are increasing. Far too often this injury is associated with rapid flight to the surface initiated as a consequence of a flooded mask. I believe this "escape-to-the-surface behavior" is a consequence of NOT allowing people with land-dwelling survival instincts the in-water training time necessary to adapt to their new-found underwater habitat. The exercise described below is the "best" (in terms of rapid development of water-on-the-face comfort) that I have ever seen and, as such, it is part of my teaching "bag of tricks."
When I was a child I experienced multiple near-drowning events. So, as an adolescent and young adult I had a fear, no! make that a terror of being under the surface of the water. Even though I was fascinated by the undersea realms of Jules Verne and other science fiction writers, as well as the scientific and historical accounts of underwater explorations, my nightmares of being held under the surface of the water kept me primarily a land-dweller. A lab colleague received his instructor's card in 1977 and offered everyone in our lab a "free" course. He knew of my trepidation and convinced me that the experience of scuba diver training would be good immersion therapy (pun intended) for reducing my in-water apprehension.
He suggested that I try the exercise described below as a mechanism to cope with my in-water discomfort. Given the enormity of my terror, it took me tens of hours with my face in the water to become comfortable. But, the exercise worked for me. The rest, as they say, is history.
I now recommend this exercise to all my students (as "homework") prior to their first attempts at mask clearing. It is, for me, as an instructor, the procedure of choice whenever I sense a student expressing the natural land-dweller's discomfort at initial mask clearing attempts. I have never seen this exercise fail to build an increased comfort level in no-mask drills. The difference in a student's mask clearing skill, pre- and post mastery of the simple task described below, is often quite remarkable!
The exercise is simple: Simply place your face in the water without a mask and breathe through a snorkel. This can be done in a pool class with a group (see below) or individually, at home, by placing the head in-water either in a sink or bath tub. It is NOT important to me or anyone else how long it takes to become comfortable. (A scientist would say this is a "path independent process."). The only thing that matters is that, at some point in time, the exercise can be done without discomfort. For most folks, this is less than a couple of hours.
In a classroom mode, the class simply bends at the waist and breathes through their snorkel.
Underwater (Left, from below and Right, from the side), it looks like this:
Conclusion
This simple exercise is a superb means of overcoming the natural discomfort that is felt by novice scuba diving students when first learning to remove their mask while underwater. It is particularly useful in assisting those with mask clearing (because of the natural human land-dweller's discomfort
2
3
generated by water-on-the face in a position that places the nose in a non-breathable environment) difficulties. Once this exercise is mastered (comfort level achieved ... water-on-the-face anxiety reduced), then mask clearing and other no-mask skills are much easier to learn because the student's focus can now be directed at the more complex task being taught.
Acknowledgement
Thanks to:
Divers (Group above, Left to Right): George Durant, Brian Nowak, Jeremy Epple, and Darin Cates
Pre- and post-production assistance: Tyler Schultz of Michigan Adventure Diving
About the author:
Larry "Harris" Taylor, Ph.D. is a biochemist and Diving Safety Coordinator at the University of Michigan. He has authored more than 100 scuba related articles. His personal dive library (See Alert Diver, Mar/Apr, 1997, p. 54) is considered one of the best recreational sources of information In North America.
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the PDF URL listed above has nifty pictures too.
Any one ever heard of someone doing a whole dive with no mask?

Splitlip
12-07-2008, 19:58
Sorry. If they have to go through this exercise, they need to take up another activity.

I hear words like "terror", it is time to move on. If one needs to go through all this to meet agency requirements, there will be a catastrophe when a real incident occurs, (a mask is kicked off or whatever)

WaScubaDude
12-07-2008, 21:19
You might be very amazed to know how many divers hate to flood their mask and are filled with anxiety over just the thought of it.

I agree with your premise and think there are many certified divers who are just not suited for diving. We lost a diver here named Josh about 2 years ago, he was an avid diver and was training at DIT I believe. He was doing a recreational dive alone, surfaced, panicked and drowned.
Turns out he was "Prone to Panic Attacks" wtf???

My DB and I practice mask flood every other dive or so.

I heard of an instructor who has his instructor candidates do an entire dive with no mask. NO MASK! Claims he makes them leave their masks in the truck.
Ever heard of such a thing?

lucidblue
12-07-2008, 21:41
Sorry. If they have to go through this exercise, they need to take up another activity.

I hear words like "terror", it is time to move on. If one needs to go through all this to meet agency requirements, there will be a catastrophe when a real incident occurs, (a mask is kicked off or whatever)

So you're saying that if someone with a "no mask" fear, practices breathing without a mask underwater until they are comfortable, before getting certified, there will be catastrophe when a real incident occurs? I would think the exact opposite would be true. The point of the exercise is to overcome a natural instinct. If one gets very comfortable breathing in a no mask situation they are a lot less likely to panic and do something stupid during a real incident.

Roughwater
12-07-2008, 23:06
I'd have to agree. I know many divers who are now doing tasks they would have freaked at previously, but can handle quite comfortably now. It's a matter of getting used to and comfortable with your environment so you can handle these situations when they occur. That's part of what the training's all about.

Splitlip
12-08-2008, 12:35
Sorry. If they have to go through this exercise, they need to take up another activity.

I hear words like "terror", it is time to move on. If one needs to go through all this to meet agency requirements, there will be a catastrophe when a real incident occurs, (a mask is kicked off or whatever)

So you're saying that if someone with a "no mask" fear, practices breathing without a mask underwater until they are comfortable, before getting certified, there will be catastrophe when a real incident occurs?

I should have amplified my response.
Alot of people have difficulty at first breathing under water without a mask and some times need training and practice so it becomes automatic (I avoid saying second nature).
One of the subjects in the article spoke of being terrified and having nightmares. That throws a red flag for me.
Many catastrophes result from compounding a series of seemingly minor failures. I would consider a lost or flooded mask a minor issue, but someone who "used to be" terrorized by merely the thought of his face in the water, it could be a major failure. Compound that with a computer failure and a lost buddy; or low on air and broken fin strap, a navigation issue and a minor entanglement etc.

cummings66
12-08-2008, 13:06
I too think that somebody who's terrified of the water in that manner might be better suited for some type of land activity. There has to be some basic level of liking the water to enjoy diving and be safe.

I think people can conquer their fears and once that's done if they never experience trouble again then they are not in terror and it no long applies.

waytooslow
12-08-2008, 14:54
I presonally had a lot of apprehension during mask clears. Of course I always had a fear of open water. I actually took up the sport to overcome what was to me an unfounded fear of H2O.

What I thought was panic was not, my buddy observed that I was actually negoiating, sucking air/water and pointing to the surface. All a matter of perspective. Now, I never even think about it. Being a nose beather I have modified my mask clearing to get me past the urge to suck water in my nose. A little pinch will do it for me.

All issues can be resolved with work. IMHO

spiritdancer2u
12-08-2008, 21:16
I have a natural fear of the water, and decided to take up scuba to overcome my fear. In class this weekend, I had a mask that didnt fit right. So for three hours, I sat underwater in the pool trying to clear my mask, and pinching my nose. Finally, I ended up having a panic attack and had to get out of the water period. Because of this, the next day was spent working on the skills of breathing through the regulator, and when it came to mask clearing, I would panic and end up with a nose full of water. Thank goodness I had patient instructors. I detirmined that I needed to practice just with the snorkel and I like the idea of doing this without my mask to get my breathing down and get rid of that fear. I think the suggestion here is a great one and one I will practice before continuing on. To suggest that people who cannot clear their mask should look for another sport is ridiculous. We all have natural fears and with detirmination and practice we can overcome anything. For me, I know my limits, so I wont be continuing the next step until I get rid of this fear.
My question is, has anyone else had problems with this that have other suggestions for those of us who get a little squimish about water on the face? My son and my husband, "natural fish" in the water, have both said they too have a dislike of water in the mask and removing it so they understand where I am coming from.
I really enjoy the thought of scuba, and take all of it very seriously and dont want to have panic attacks in the water. But I dont want one bad experience to stand in my way. So any help will be appreciated.

Splitlip
12-08-2008, 22:24
We might be forgetting, mask clearing is not the only consideration.

Once after a bit of a dry spell, I lost both my mask and regulator to a fin swipe at 97 ft. **** happens.

One old school note. My OW instructor would come up behind us and rip off our masks during confined water drills. If you could not deal with it, no ticket.
We all kind of knew to expect it, so it was not that bad.

There are reasons for carrying a spare mask.

TKHouse
12-09-2008, 23:25
I heard of an instructor who has his instructor candidates do an entire dive with no mask. NO MASK! Claims he makes them leave their masks in the truck.
Ever heard of such a thing?

That sounds like a pretty intense open water class! But I suppose an intense class is certainly better than a class that pretends nothing bad will ever happen. Losing your mask is all too possible and it's something important to know how to deal with.

My OW instructor never knocked a mask or fin off in an OW dive, but in every class session we spent the last fifteen to twenty minutes just swimming around the pool, our instructor would knock off fins, pull your mask, turn off tank valves, all types of fun stuff! It certainly wasn't like doing a whole dive without a mask, but it was helpful in making us a little more comfortable under water.

WaScubaDude
12-10-2008, 01:19
I heard of an instructor who has his instructor candidates do an entire dive with no mask. NO MASK! Claims he makes them leave their masks in the truck.
Ever heard of such a thing?

That sounds like a pretty intense open water class! But I suppose an intense class is certainly better than a class that pretends nothing bad will ever happen. Losing your mask is all too possible and it's something important to know how to deal with.

My OW instructor never knocked a mask or fin off in an OW dive, but in every class session we spent the last fifteen to twenty minutes just swimming around the pool, our instructor would knock off fins, pull your mask, turn off tank valves, all types of fun stuff! It certainly wasn't like doing a whole dive without a mask, but it was helpful in making us a little more comfortable under water.

Hey TK just to clarify: read...instructor who has his "instructor candidates"
this was training for instructors, not OW students. Would be way too much for OW students.

WaScubaDude
12-10-2008, 01:24
To the newer divers, Thanks for posting your thoughts, struggles and learning!
I think experienced divers often forget what it was like in the early days of their learning. Many potential concerns or problems for new divers are responded to with "get more experience" or "you need more confidence".
I think most divers prefer more helpful and specific advice.

TKHouse
12-10-2008, 03:47
Hey TK just to clarify: read...instructor who has his "instructor candidates"
this was training for instructors, not OW students. Would be way too much for OW students.

D'Oh! That makes a lot more sense, I guess I looked at the forum name and assumed OW.

You're absolutely right, though, about the specific advice. I climb a lot in my free time and it seems like every time someone asks a question about how to make a move or reach a hold another experienced climber responds with "use your feet"... although it's often the truth, it's not necessarily the most helpful advice to a new climber.

sea princess
12-10-2008, 23:33
My friend and my husband stuggled with the whole mask clearing and mask removing thing. For my husband he has sinus trouble and it was difficult and so he is chosing not to take OW class yet. (we did some discover dives and he was scared his mask would get knocked off) With my friend i worke with her over and over in the water and just reminded her as long as you can breathe your okay. She practiced in the pool with just her face in the water and in the tub and now is much more confortable with it. Just give yourself time to get used to it and practice over and over to get comfortable.

cvrle1
12-23-2008, 00:43
A guy in my OW class never finished his cert because he couldn't pass this skill. He had problems breathing through his nose when the mask was off. During the pool dives he surfaced every time he tried it (about 4 times) He finally got it and thought he had it down.

Well we went to the ocean and up here water is cold (~8C) so when he took his mask off, panic kicked in. His face wasn't prepared for the rush of cold water and to the surface he went.

Instructor tried to work with him on it, but he just gave up after few unsuccessful tries and never finished his OW cert. It sucks, but it was probably for the best.

Splitlip
12-23-2008, 00:52
Yes. For the best in my opinion.

USF_Diver
12-23-2008, 10:10
Yeah I wasn't looking forward to the mask clear in training since I have contacts, but was able to do it with my eyes closed.

Would the force of the water hold the contacts in your eyes?

Flatliner
12-23-2008, 10:21
I was someone to whom mask clearing was a piece of cake. (My issue was EAR clearing). However, my daughter (who is a fish) has real anxiety about it. She is hoping to become certified later this summer. I am going to use this exercise with her in our pool. Thanks for the great post.

Grin
12-23-2008, 10:29
Everyone has some sort of issue. That's what the OW class is for. I have had to tell alot of people this. They want me to take them diving, uncerified, and I refuse.
My neighbor got his buddies to take him diving , uncertified, and he did not equalize his mask as he decended. Most people just naturally do this automatically. We(me and my neighbors) all laughed ourselves to tears when he arrived home with giant bug eyes. The mask liked to suck his eyes right out of his head. To this day(about 5 years later) he swears scuba diving is rediculously dangerous and refuses the thought of it. Too bad he didn't take the class!

I had all sorts of issues with my ears for a couple years. I worked through it and have been ear issue free for a few years now.

I do wonder how there are not more accidents/ and deaths though. When you see some of the uncoorinated, panik looking faces on dive boats, for new divers, it makes you wonder how there are so many people out there doing these cert dives, and how few actually fail. I used to go on dive boats, and it always amazed me how some make it through.

I agree that what experience makes simple, is often forgotten. But scuba diving definatly is a hobby for certain people who challenge the task loading type experience. Every once in a while I have found myself in a task loading situation even after many 100s of dives, over 10 years. It is those times that determine if you are well suited for the scuba type of activity. After a situation happens, and the dive is over, you can hopefully be proud of the way you reacted in a suprise, new, unplanned, situation. The word "Panik" has no place in diving. If you find yourself paniking for any reason, you have to honestly ask yourself if you think you might panik in a situation at depth, possibly with noone around to save you from yourself. Becasue "Panik" could instantly seal the deal.
It's a tough question to answer honestly though. Being in a pool, only 3 ft under, allows "panik" as a option, so many might take it. Being 75 ft deep, without the panik option available, the same person might not panik, as panik is not a option. A dive buddy can give the option to panik also. Just knowing(thinking) someone is there to save you, allows the option to panik for some. Personally I couldn't imagine trusting that option. I am a solo diver, 99% of the time, and feel safer solo diving, believe it or not.

I have lost my mask countless times while splashing over the side of the boat. I like my mask strap barely tight, just barely there to basically hold the mask in place. So mask floods, and such, happen to me all the time(usually when I splash in).

Has anyone ever forgot their fins? Now there's a test for you. I passed that test :smiley32:. If you panik with no mask, try no fins!

I think that goes along with what Sliptip is stating. If you panik with a flooded mask, what are you going to do when you jump in with a valve turned off, or if your BC bladder pops, or you get snagged in fishing line, or a million other possiblitilites that noone could list them all. Panik! I hope not!

No Misses
12-23-2008, 10:48
In OW class I had absolutely no problem with having a flooded mask. I had a mustache and had been freediving for lobsters for several years. Hanging upside down looking under ledges, my mask was perpetually flooded.

When it came time for breathing through a reg without a mask on, that was harder for me. I kept getting water up my nose. I managed to get through the skill. But, I did not feel comfortable with it. I have since mastered the skill. This is a good thing. I once had this happen to me while hiperventilating http://forum.scubatoys.com/hunting-gathering/9518-running-bulls-aka-grouper-story.html?highlight=the+running+of+the+bulls

One thing that really helps, with breathing without a mask, is to look down while performing the skill. If you are looking straight ahead, the bubbles from your exhaust will be rolling up your face and causing water to go up your nose. With the face down aproach, the bubbles are nowhere near your nose. I hope this helps.

Skred
12-23-2008, 10:57
Yeah I wasn't looking forward to the mask clear in training since I have contacts, but was able to do it with my eyes closed.

Would the force of the water hold the contacts in your eyes?

I have briefly opened my eyes underwater with no mask more than once during skills demonstrations and have never lost a lens but I do make it a point to limit head movement.

cvrle1
12-23-2008, 12:43
Has anyone ever forgot their fins? Now there's a test for you. I passed that test :smiley32:. If you panik with no mask, try no fins!



Can't say I done that before (then again I have less then 10 dives total) but I did start to take the air out of my BCD and descent while I had my snorkel in my mouth. Once I got a mouth full of salt water I realized what I did. I got a good laugh out of that one let me tell you.

USF_Diver
12-24-2008, 11:33
Yeah I wasn't looking forward to the mask clear in training since I have contacts, but was able to do it with my eyes closed.

Would the force of the water hold the contacts in your eyes?

I have briefly opened my eyes underwater with no mask more than once during skills demonstrations and have never lost a lens but I do make it a point to limit head movement.

Good to know, I should just get my eyes worked on so I can get rid
of the contacts.

Italianprincess
12-24-2008, 13:37
See, I was thinking along the same lines as Tim....I don't mind the water on my face, in my eyes, whatever! So I can't comprehend the fear as mentioned above. I was hesitant to start diving but discovered from my first underwater "breath" that this was indeed the sport for me! I absolutely love the water. I had no idea some people have a difficult time with this!

cummings66
12-24-2008, 22:36
I'm one of the lucky ones who never had problems with any skill, in fact the no mask bit was the most fun for me. I've been swimming most of my life and most of that was without mask so I've been at home with water in my eyes from almost the start. The only water I don't like in my eye's is chlorine pool water, it burns.

Last weekend I did about 10 minutes of my dive in 53 degree water without a mask because I wanted to stay in practice. Wasn't bad, then I did a dive where I wanted to stay dry and the dang mask kept leaking due to a mustache I'm growing and that annoyed the heck out of me because I couldn't go more than a minute without the mask filling up. I hated it, not because it bothered me, but because it got in the way of the dive I did. It's no fun when you've got to clear the mask every other breath. Then the next dive it was a dry dive and I was happy.

To me, a leaky mask isn't a big deal, it's just an annoyance. I think doing snorkel swims without mask are a great way to get used to it. If you can't get used to it, then I think you must find a way or give up the dream. It's an important skill that must be mastered.

Mtrewyn
12-25-2008, 22:31
To me there are two completely different things going on here.

1. flooding a mask.
2. swimming without a mask using scuba.

I have real issues with a flooded mask, but I take it off and I'm fine, I could dive all day (not really but you get the point) with out the mask and be perfectly fine.

Flooded... that is a whole different story, if my mask is flooding and I cannot clear it I start to get uneasy, more than some to "wash" the fog off so to speak, and if I cannot get it to clear easly....i'm done, I'll call the dive, I don't panic or anything like that, but this causes me real stress. This could be why I have several masks, and shave every day while diving, I hate to shave the rest of the time.

I too got certified with an instructor that pulled your mask, fins, tank etc. My solution to this, take off my mask, calm down, than put it back on clear it, and go on. worked for me, still good, and I have lost my mask at depth, I just found it, put it back on, and went on, if I could not have found it, I just would have come up, like I said, going with out one is no big deal, but having one full of water...thats different.

USF_Diver
01-02-2009, 16:27
Yeah I am fine without a mask when I know I have to take the mask off but it would really suck losing a mask when you don't expect it like a fin kick to the mask.

scubajane
01-02-2009, 23:22
I like the idea of practicing breathing underwater with a snorkel and no mask. I have issues with water up my nose.
Splitlip please Don't be so hard on us. Some of us are SLOW learners. but we DO learn. I try to learn something every day. I get anxious at times but I am careful to not BEHAVE like I am panicked. If I stopped doing everything that 'upset' me I would stay in bed all day.
And YES I agree some people should NEVER be certified. training and practice and patience and desire can help overcome some terrible fears and produce fabulous results!!!
Scuba has taught me how to prevent panic underwater and on the surface. Case in point... I was going into my office with an armload of 'precious' paperwork, I lost my balance and papers began to slide and fly around, since I deal with sensitive issues I could not allow any papers to be "lost". I started the panic cycle.....and then I remembered my scuba training...breathe...think...act. I was able to gather all my papers and averted any panic. :) scuba is GOOD!!! I plan to keep on learning and I will be practicing the snorkel thing!!!! to make me a better diver

spiritdancer2u
01-03-2009, 21:59
I have to say, I practiced with no mask and my mask filling up on me and can now clear it. No more panic attacks. You see, with practice something that bothers you can be overcome. You just have to have the willingness to do it. I have to thank the many of you who were willing to offer advice and to those of you who gave up your experiences to the rest of us. It is always nice to see that others have advice or stories of experiences that can help someone else. If I couldnt it do it, I would have given up my idea of scuba. I still have a little edginess with scuba, but, nothing that I shouldnt expect to have with something new. Thanks ya'll for the help!

ThunderAce
01-01-2010, 17:48
After recently having an experience helping a student work on Mask Flood / Clear skill, I would like to offer this advice.
The student was comfortable breathing thru a reg underwater, no problems. Did the first Flood / clear okay, but the second time was thinking too much and couldn't. Student sat there for about 5 minutes, I could see the brain processing and processing but the mask didn't move. No flood.
Up to the surface, asked what was the problem... 'can't flood it. just can't.'
Okay, a problem. "How about this? Can you put your head under water?"
"Yeah, of course."
"Okay, do that."
No problem. Back to the surface. Now, reg in mouth, head underwater, Breathe. No problems. Up we go.
"So that was easy right?"
"Yup"
"Now, we'll do the same thing, underwater, mask off, breathe. When you are comfortable, put your mask on. Okay? Then we'll come up again."
"Okee Dokee."
Under we go, breathe, mask on (flooded of course), breathe. No problem. Up we go.
"All right! Now do the same, only this time, clear the mask."
End result? Able to flood and clear the mask no problems, over and over.
One extra hint here, when you are clearing your mask (assuming you do not have a purge valve), start exhaling (thru nose) while looking down. While exhailing thru your nose, slowly look up. This will prevent the dreaded water in the nose syndrome.
Hope this helps!

inventor
01-01-2010, 18:05
After first pool dives, had to get a purge mask. Flipped out with even two drops of water in my mask, touching my nose. Mask now doesn't fit well, and fills regularly. Recently, following a slow moving carp on the bottom, dive buddy had to stop me, and signal me to clear my mask. It was over half full, and was so interested in the fish, was tilting my head to keep one eye clear, so I could see the fish. Doesn't bother me at all now.:smiley20:

P.S. That dive was my 24th, you get used to it quickly. Also, on my 20th dive had my reg kicked out by divebuddy. No problem, just did the arm sweep and put it back in. Have to admit I did try clearing it three times.:smiley36:

ThunderAce
01-01-2010, 18:48
After first pool dives, had to get a purge mask. Flipped out with even two drops of water in my mask, touching my nose. Mask now doesn't fit well, and fills regularly. Recently, following a slow moving carp on the bottom, dive buddy had to stop me, and signal me to clear my mask. It was over half full, and was so interested in the fish, was tilting my head to keep one eye clear, so I could see the fish. Doesn't bother me at all now.:smiley20:

P.S. That dive was my 24th, you get used to it quickly. Also, on my 20th dive had my reg kicked out by divebuddy. No problem, just did the arm sweep and put it back in. Have to admit I did try clearing it three times.:smiley36:


Wow, time for a different mask. Go back to your Dive Center and try on every mask. Flip the strap in front so all you have touching your head is the skirt.
Place the mask LIGHTLY against your face. I mean lightly. Check all the sides of the mask to see if it's touching your face. I bet that a good number of the masks do not touch your face all round.
I recently got a new mask, finding one to fit my face nicely took trying on at least ten different types. An added benefit was that the new mask is closer to my eyes so I can see better underwater.
Masks come in all sizes, faces come in all sizes. Flooding is not an option.

inventor
01-01-2010, 18:55
Thanks, thunder. But right now I'm invention focused. No dive spending for a while.

Filippo
01-04-2010, 21:47
This is crazy, what's the problem with a little water on your face? hehe

navyhmc
01-04-2010, 21:57
I've seen a few folks that have all but a phobia about taking the mask off. Usually they haven't spent a lot of time in the water to begin with. And it's not a little water, it's the lack of air about their face that causes problems.

Noob
01-05-2010, 09:41
When I was getting my OW cert I had a problem with breathing through my nose taking off the mask. You guys helped me fix that. My problem was I wasnt use to the water all the sudden. Now its no big deal. I still practice this too.

If my mask fogs now I just peel a bit off let water in, and swish it around. Then I blow it out. No biggie anymore.

Sometimes I'll swim around with a little water in my mask just for practice and stay use to the water in my nose.

Anyway, I think its just a practice.

Panic attacks though, I dont think any sport like this is a good one for panic attacks.

spearo
07-25-2010, 19:13
Sounds kinda of like getting certified for combat diving!!!....but if you have ever entered the water from shore through rough surf you know that losing your mask can happen...

Kjay
07-26-2010, 05:11
I had problems with the link above. this one worked (http://www.oseh.umich.edu/articles/nmask.pdf)

Jack Hammer
07-26-2010, 09:45
I had problems with the link above. this one worked (http://www.oseh.umich.edu/articles/nmask.pdf)

That link is 2 years old, it may have changed.